Saturday, May 23, 2020
This paper discusses the role of the media in political campaigns. The purpose of campaigns To understand the role of election campaigns towards the end result it is necessary to understand that two ideas exist. It is believed that the voters decide for their candidate before the campaigning starts, while the others believe that it through active campaigning that voters reach their decision. The purpose of political campaigns is to do one of three things to affect the voter: motivate, reinforce and convert. It is also important to understand that a political campaign is not a single event but rather a series of events that shape the voterÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the candidates. The shaping of this perception is a direct result of how theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The result is the American public has a front row seat to political debates, campaign advertising and negative candidate advertising from their opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign. The most recent venue for the media is the Internet. Upon the creation on the World Wide Web the internet has do ne a great deal in raising public awareness of politics in the United States. Many experts have agreed that the internet has revolutionized American journalism. As a result of the internet, reporters and the public now enjoy unprecedented access to government activity, public and private libraries, archives of publications and newspapers. The internet is fairly new in the political campaign process. The following quotes were eye opening on the importance of the internet in a candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign from getting their message out to fundraising. In particular, Cole notes a trend of the increasing importance of the Internet as a primary source of political information. Based on conservative estimates, Internet use for obtaining political information may have tripled since 2000, now nearing an estimated 60 percent of Internet users. According to Cole, the evolving changes that combine open access, low-cost technology, and a growing base of users who seek political information and involvement have created vast potential for virtual politics that is reshaping the natureShow MoreRelatedThe Relationship Between Social Media Platforms And The Government1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages This essay explores the different relationships between social media platforms and the government to provide insight into the different ways the government uses media masses to further their agendas and how its good business is used for political gain. This essay also discusses the different ideologies and fallacies individuals have of the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s role in society. This essay wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t written to persuade one either way, but rather to bring the important relationship to light, so with better understandingRead MoreThe And Of Public Broadcasting1287 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinformation to make better decisions. Whether as a voter, consumer or investor, Americans believe they will be able to form their own idealistic views based on what they see in the media. However, that belief is just a fallacy. In my opinion, viewers that believe this false pretense are unaware that a portion of mass media in the Unites States is privately owned. In both public television and radio, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) funds a portion of their revenue (the CPB is a privateRead MoreEssay on Mass Media Coverage of Presidential Election1460 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Mass media coverage of the U.S. presidential election involves two key elements- news reporting and paid advertising. Combined they make the media an important and influential factor in the election process. The media depends upon the campaigns for both news and revenues. The candidates then rely upon the media to get in touch with the largest number of voters possible. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Media has a Ã¢â¬Å" very powerful and justifiable roleÃ¢â¬ (Fullerton-1)Read MoreThe Role Of Popular News Media On An Electoral Environment1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto access it (Bates). This is the context that explains the role of information agents or media and communication in leadership dynamics. Therefore, with the help of a case study, the current paper demonstrates the relationship between information and power, particularly the role of popular news media in an electoral environment. The Case Study The United States 2016 presidential election campaign has gone down the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s political history of the modern times as the one that is marred by a lotRead MoreHow Social Media Has Impacted Politics Essay1738 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. Introduction and Background Social media has become a major part of communication today. It has changed the way people find each other, share interest and ideas, not to mention how it has changed how companies advertise and communicate with their customers. Based on this year alone, social media has impacted politics in a major way. The goal was to reach the young generation by engaging in social media platforms by simply posting, commenting and video sharing . Social networking sites hasRead MoreUse of Technology in Election Campaigns1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRole of Internet in 2008 Social media Social media played a vital role in 2008 U.S. President Elections. Using of Social networking websites like Facebook, Twitter, You tube was adapted by the political parties and influenced them to use social media in order to reach people effectively in U.S. Presidential Elections in 2008 has changed the way of campaigning and expressing effectively. Digital technology allowed leaders to interact with voters, transforming the campaigning totally into a new levelRead MoreHow Social Media Drives Politics1608 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHow Social Media Drives Politics I. Introduction a. Be wise in choosing what to believe on Social Media because politicians can manipulate you into thinking one thing when in fact what they mean is the opposite. b. Social media tools including Twitter, Facebook and YouTube have dramatically changed the way political campaigns are run and how we interact with our elected officials. These websites have made politicians more accessible and allowing campaigns to carefully craft and customize their candidatesÃ¢â¬â¢Read MorePresidential Elections Vs. The Olympic Games Essay962 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthem. Over time, electoral campaigns were changing their form. If the propaganda before was pamphlets and public events, radio added rules to the game by allowing mass speeches. And the transformation was greater with the advent of television broadcasts, focused on the image of a candidate who no longer needed his political party to get closer to the electorate across the country. In the internet age, electoral campaigns found a new way: social medias. Social media is having a much greater impactRead MorePolitical Parties And Interest Groups1088 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdemonstrate how political parties and interest groups are able to get citizens to participate in politics and political party participants or interest group members. This is a comparison and contrast paper. The following will be a comparison between political parties and interest groups. Three points will be mentioned. The first point will be the purpose, the second will be the role they play and finally three strategies parties and interest groups use to get people to participate. A political party isRead MoreUse Of Persuasion And Priming Of An Idealistic World1576 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinformation regarding elections and their vying candidates. However, voters do not determine the electionÃ¢â¬â¢s outcome purely on the basis of the candidatesÃ¢â¬â¢ merit, competence and convictions but rather there are other factors that play a role as well. Moreover, campaigns are stimulus fields that try to produce psychological mediators like persuading, priming or framing. However, before the voters can even receive any information, there is variance in the delivery of information in the first place. And
Monday, May 18, 2020
Preconceptions In both Merchant of Venice, by Shakespeare, and Frankenstein, by Mary Shelly, identities, prejudices, and judgements are constantly put to the test. Shylock and Portia, who originally identify strongly with their Jewish ancestry are subject to prejudice and judgement, ultimately causing them to change their concepts of identity to conform to society. Similarly, the Creature is judged for his physical appearance, causing him to grow angry when he is exiled by society. Both novels seem to suggest that bias plays a role in determining the relationship between people, even when they have never met before. These characters are judged, eventually shaping the way they will identify by the end of the novel, and largely forcing them to change the very way they act and appear. For this reason, in both Merchant of Venice and Frankenstein, prejudice is used as a tool to stereotype and label people, eventually causing them to conform and mold themselves to the norms set out for them by society. M any people are often judged because they are different from the norms society has set for them, causing them to often be stereotyped into categories. This is especially true in the context of both novels. Shylock experiences prejudice because he identifies as Jewish, and is often discriminated against, explaining how someone spat on him, saying, Ã¢â¬Å"You call me misbeliever, cutthroat dog, And spat upon my Jewish gabardine, And all for use of that which is mine ownÃ¢â¬ (1.3). He
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Montaigne and Descartes nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Montaigne and Descartes both made use of a philosophical method that focused on the use of doubt to make discoveries about themselves and the world around them. However, they doubted different things. Descartes doubted all his previous knowledge from his senses, while Montaigne doubted that there were any absolute certainties in knowledge. Although they both began their philosophical processes by doubting, Montaigne doubting a constant static self, and Descartes doubted that anything existed at all, Descartes was able to move past that doubt to find one indubitably certainty, Ã¢â¬Å"I think, therefore I amÃ¢â¬ . nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;How often do we question what is real or true?Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Through his philosophical search Descartes was able to find one indubitable certainty, that we are thinking beings. We always think, even when we have doubts that we are thinking we are still thinking because a doubt is a thought. Although Descartes found this one universal truth, he was still not able to believe in anything but the fact that he was a thinking being. Therefore he still doubted everything around him. He used this one certainty to try to find a system of knowledge about everything in the world. Descartes idea was to propose a hypothesis about something. For example he might say that a perfect being was in existence. He would go around this thought in a methodical way, doubting it, all the while trying to identify it as a certainty. Doubting everything was at first dangerous because in doubting everything he was also admitting that he doubted th e existence of God, and thus opposing the church. However he made it a point to tell us at the beginning of his Discourse on Methods that what he was writing was only for himself and that he expected no one but himself to follow it (Descartes 14, 15). Descartes eventually managed to prove the existence of a higher being. He said that since he had the idea of a perfect being, then that perfect being must exist. HisShow MoreRelatedMontaigne and Descartes on Doubting1571 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages2004 Philosophy 110 Montaigne and Descartes Montaigne and Descartes both made use of a philosophical method that focused on the use of doubt to make discoveries about themselves and the world around them. However, they doubted different things. Descartes doubted all his previous knowledge from his senses, while Montaigne doubted that there were any absolute certainties in knowledge. Although they both began their philosophical processes by doubting, Montaigne doubting a constant static selfRead MoreGod Is Truth Essay1409 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMontaigne, Descartes, and Pascal all believe in a superlative truth unforeseeable through the commonly held truth of society. Montaigne states that even contradictions are not contradictions in truth (Montaigne, p.75). Not believing in the possibility of this lack contradiction in truth would be considered scepticism - scepticism being the reluctance to believe anything for any reason. This same scepticism is explained by Descartes as a self-disproving falsity by his quotation I th ink, thereforeRead More How Descartes Tries to Extricate Himself from the Skeptical Doubts He Has Raised4647 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesHow Descartes Tries to Extricate Himself from the Skeptical Doubts He Has Raised [All page references and quotations from the Meditations are taken from the 1995 Everyman edition] In the Meditations, Descartes embarks upon what Bernard Williams has called the project of Pure Enquiry to discover certain, indubitable foundations for knowledge. By subjecting everything to doubt Descartes hoped to discover whatever was immune to it. In order to best understand how and why Descartes
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Philips Electronics Ã¢â¬Å"Stakeholders (or interest groups) are tangible, visible and approachable groups or institutions which have a direct influence on the functioning of an organisation.Ã¢â¬ INTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS Employees Philips employees work in different divisions: Healthcare, Lighting, Consumer Lifestyle and Innovation amp; Emerging Businesses. Within these divisions, you can have a general leadership position, occupy a functional leadership position, you can be specialist, etc. Philips says itÃ¢â¬â¢s giving its employees freedom to develop and improve their skills and talents, it is challenging them to grow. Its employees therefore, are given an high responsibility, but they can also contribute their new ideas. Because when you work atÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦But this also works the other way around; Philips can go to its competitors websites and investigate their data as well. They can gain insights from this information: what does the competitor do different? Which products are they going to launch? What do their customers like about them? Etc. But competitors can also have a negative influence on Philips sales if it sells similar. This also becomes a problem when the competitor has che aper prices, or products of better quality. EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS Government A government of a country can restrict companies in doing what they would like to do. This can have a negative influence on its sales or even on its image. This happened to Philips in 2005, when it Philips America made a deal with Cuba to provide medical equipment (from Philips in the Netherlands) to the country, but they did not have the permission of the American government for this deal. So by making the deal, Philips broke the law and Philips Electronics North America Corporation was accused and had to pay a fine to the American government. After paying this fine Philips provided the needed equipment to Cuba, and that it would continue to do business with that country, but this time with the needed licenses. But apart from negative influence, a government can also contribute something positive to a company. Sometimes a government decides to protect certain sectors or products by givingShow MoreRelatedCorporate Social And Social Responsibility1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAs the interest in corporate social responsibility has had the ability to keep increasing and developing and the force that is gain by movement, scholars and practitioners have put effort to follow the progress, development and information of companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance to accomplish their corporate social responsibilities, characteristically to use a particular name corporate social performance (CSP) to describe it. Such corporate social performance shows people and stakeholders things that importantRead MorePhilip Morris Essay13858 Words Ã |Ã 56 PagesPhilip Morris USA Inc. Corporate Social Responsibility - going up into flames? Katrine Brusvang Supervisor: Sandro Nielsen International Virksomhedskommunikation HandelshÃ ¸jskolen, Aarhus Universitet May 2012 Number of Characters: 54812. Philip Morris USA Inc. Corporate Social Responsibility - going up into to flames? Abstract Today businesses should do more than just generate maximum financial returns. It has become important that businesses operate in a socially responsible wayRead MoreEssay on Managerial Ethics1603 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestheories, the social responsibility of organisations to stakeholders and their responses to social demands, with specific reference to a case study presenting an ethical dilemma, where Mobil halts product sales to a garage, forcing the garage owner to stop selling solvents to young people. The second section of this essay will focus on advice that should be given to any manager in a similar position to the garage owner with relevance to the organisational strategic management, the corporate objectiveRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility And Sustainability Essay1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Contents Ã¢â¬ ¢ Summery Ã¢â¬ ¢ Vision or Mission statement Ã¢â¬ ¢ Values of the organisation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Corporate Social Responsibility/Sustainability Ã¢â¬ ¢ SMART analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Conclusions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reference list Summery This assessment is about analysing the management of two different companies Macquarie group of services and David Jones. Both got many similarities and differences between their organisational structure and management. They also work with a vision in market from many years. ThereRead MoreThe Philip Morris Tobacco Company Essay1887 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPhillip Morris Phillip Morris The Philip Morris tobacco company started in 1847 on a small street in London (Sanders, Wisse, Van, 2015). One of the primary goals is to be a socially creditworthy company, at both local and global level. Consequently this is the reason Philip Morris had passion for social performance. They began as a very small family business specializing in hand rolled cigarettes. In 1902, the company moved to New York City and merged. Even though the company stayed small by 1960Read MoreCompany Integrity And Cultural Obligation1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesISSUE: COMPARTIVE COMPANY INTEGRITY CULTURAL OBLIGATION Significantly Vistas Relating to Popularity of CSR (Corporate Interpersonal Responsibility) Advantages Business Interpersonal Obligation (CSR), a plan that was around with regard to overflow thirty five years, has become famous once again not long ago Philip Placing (2005) notes in which Associate with Sanita improving selection of multinational businesses (TNCs) and also massive home-based organizations, recognized simply by small businessRead MoreFood Industry: Nestle CSR Strategy Essay 976 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNot many companies are successful but they are still operating their company to improve their CSR strategy to become successful company later. Nestle uses CSR strategy as a resource within environment to advocate the market needs and to fulfill stakeholder expectation. Nestle is in progress to improve what they need to become a successful company for their future. Unfortunately, Nestles has produced several poor issues pertaining to CSR strategies that include child labor, unethical promotion andRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility And Its Legal Requirements1366 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction In today s economic and social environment, issues related to social responsibility and sustainability are gaining more and more importance, especially in the business sector (Webfinance. 2014). Business goals are inseparable from the societies and environments within which they operate. Whilst short-term economic gain can be pursued (Catalyst Consortium. 2002), the failure to account for longer-term social and environmental impacts makes those business practices unsustainable. In ourRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility And Csr1869 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesCorporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been a much talked about topic and the importance of CSR has been increasing over the years. Companies that embrace CSR hold themselves responsible for their activities and strive to make a positive impact on the environment and the society. CSR has several definitions and can be comprehended differently by various stakeholders. One of the definitions mentioned by ACCA (2014) is Ã¢â¬Å"a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s obligation to all of its stakeholders across all of its activitiesRead MoreSustainability and Triple Bottom Line Reporting Essay1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand the environment are consistently growing and developing. This constant fluctuation between these two categories is affecting all types of organizations, especially businesses. Due to the constant changes in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, shareholders and stakeholders expect information about the financial, operational and investing activities of a business. Businesses are either flourishing or failing, but all the businesses that are most successful do not only owe their success to the products or services
Today we are living in a globalized world, where organizations are multicultural and diverse, people are sharing a global language (English) and a global medium of communications (Internet), technology is booming, small connected world and changes are faster than ever. To be an effective leader of emerging organizations in the global world one will need to see the world and the workforce with a global mindset (Marquardt Berger 2000).To cope with the changes in a globalized business world, leaders will need to develop different attributes and competencies, such as: visionary, effective communication, innovation, motivational, creative, spirituality and concern of ethics, charismatic and risk taking. We will write a custom essay sample on Attributes and Competencies of the Global Leader or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, some of these skills are not essential for a leader to succeed, for example not all successful leaders are charismatic or creative. On the other hand, there are some leadership competencies like effective communication, visionary, honesty/integrity, motivational/inspirational are essential for a real leader.In my opinion, if these skills arenÃ¢â¬â¢t available in a leader, then he/she is not practicing the leadership effectively and will not be distinguished from the crowd. In this paper I will examine the four attributes most needed by men and women to lead in the new world, and will highlight how these attributes are going to evolve over time. Visionary leaders Leaders start to envision when they are unhappy with the present situation, and want to change the future. Leadership starts with having a vision, then developing a plan to achieve it through the followers (Giuliani 2002).Real leaders envision an exciting highly attractive future for their organizations, inspire and share the vision, enlist others in a common vision, keep visioning as ongoing process. According to Kouzes Posner the visionary leaders as described in The Leadership Challenge book Ã¢â¬Å"compared to all other the other leadership qualities constituents expect, this is the one that most distinguishes leaders from other credible peopleÃ¢â¬ (Kouzes Posner, 2007) Leaders should believe in their vision, and have the will to translate it to reality and communicate it to the follow ers.To be a successful leader itÃ¢â¬â¢s not enough only to build the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vision, but also to inspire workers, customers, colleagues and stakeholders about the vision (Marquardt Berger 2000). Once the followers clearly understand the vision they will work towards that direction, and will set smaller visions, missions, and goals to achieve the organizational vision. In addition, a real leader must envision together with the followers the type of the future they desire. Having a shared vision of the future helps the individuals of any organization to take decisions wisely.They can build their daily and strategic decisions based on having outcomes that will align with the shared vision. In addition, visionary leaders with the ability to forecast the future can take the company forward and help in gaining a competitive advantage. When John Kennedy set a goal of putting a man on the moon by 1970 or Bill Gates aimed to put a computer in each home, they were focusing attention on attainable future goals (Marquardt Berger 2000). These leaders and many others had a unique ability to search new business opportunities and new markets.They believed in their sense and vision, although it was against the common sense that others believed on. For example, in 1943, Thomas Watson, the CEO of IBM said Ã¢â¬Å"I think there is a world market of maybe five computersÃ¢â¬ . This tells us the difference between him and a visionary leader like Bill Gates, who envisioned the future of having a PC in each home, and gained a competitive advantage over the others well established IT companies! (Forster 2009). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s very important in a globalized business world to have a clear direction, where to go and how to reach there.Leaders lacking the sense of direction and the envision of the future canÃ¢â¬â¢t make it to the end, since the followers expect their leaders to tell them whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the company is likely to be in the next 6-12 months, or 3-5 years, or even 10 years from now. Good communication skills Effective communication skill is one of the most important leadership characteristics, or I would prefer to describe it as a must skill that all leaders should acquire and develop consistently.Good communication skills inclu des: active listening, building relationships through dialogue, engage subordinates, understanding of cultural difference, walk the talk and lead by example (Forster 2009). Good leaders should be good listeners. Leaders should actively and deeply listen to followers and encourage a collaborative and open environment to promote the free exchange of ideas. Most successful leaders believed in utilizing as many minds as possible and engage the followers thought the organizational cycle. In addition, most of the communication breakdowns occur because of not listing effectively.Poor communication is repeatedly cited as major problem in many organizations, whether it is a top-down communication or among different departments and individuals. A leader should have the ability and skills to create an effective communication strategy. During the history many major crises were caused by miss-communication and it cost companies big losses, examples of communication breakdowns were the ones occurred in NASA associated with crash of Space Shuttle Challenger and the loss of the Mars Climate Orbiter (Forster 2009).In both cases the problem was poor communication amongst the different individuals working on the projects. If the projectsÃ¢â¬â¢ leader/leaders were effective communicator he/she would actively listen to the subordinates regarding not launching the rocket during cold weather in the first case, and in the second case would ensure a better communication among the two groups of engineers who were working using two different metric measurements. At the end good communication skills would have saved NASA from the big losses. Leaders in a globalized business world should have a good understanding of cross-cultural communication.In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world even if the company is operating nationally, the leader will be facing people from different cultures, and a communication attitude that is acceptable in a company in the Middle East can be seen offensive in other cultures. Moreover, when a leader understand the differences across the cultures, it will be easier to communicate in a personal way with different individual. It will be much easier to establish relationships and appeal to followersÃ ¢â¬â¢ hearts and minds. Story telling is one of the useful techniques that can enhance leaders communicate style. Stories can help leaders to vividly illustrate what they are trying to communicate in an interesting way. Stories that communicate and connect to on an emotional level help communicate deeper than words and leave much stronger impression on the listener than using a simple stating of the facts or orders. There is no single work without communication being part of it; if the leader is a visionary, motivational, honest, experienced and competent but fails to effectively communicate and express all this to his/her followers, then there is no point of him/her being a leader!A leader with good communication skills can easily communicate the vision and get the message across, build strong relationships, get employees aligned behind the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Indeed, many other organizational competencies such as change, innovation and learning are dependable on having effective communication skills and system in place (Forster 2009). Basically, communication is the core of the differ ent functions in any organization.For example, letÃ¢â¬â¢s assume we have an X Company where we ask all employees -from the CEO to the security guard- not to communicate (internally and externally) in any of the forms (verbal, non-verbal and written) for one working-day! We all know that the X Company will fail to function and perform. Motivational and inspirational To be a motivational leader at first you should be a self-motivated. A motivational and inspirational leader is the one who have the ability to keep the followers motivated in the work they do and inspired about turning the vision into reality, and treat their followers as intelligent, creative nd most importantly not to de-motivate them. There are many different ways that a leader can motivate the followers even through financial motivational tools (money- promotion- bonuses), or emotional motivations (giving them more responsibilities- authorities- freedom- nice working environment), rewarding and appreciation. Or as simple as saying Ã¢â¬Å"ThanksÃ¢â¬ can be a powerful motivator. People want to be inspired, and expect their leaders to be enthusiastic, energetic, and optimistic about the future. If leader doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t show inspiration and passion for the company, why follower should!If the leader is self-motivated and care about his/her employees motivations; he/she will have the best performance out of the employees, they will enjoy the work a nd will be more committed. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not enough for a leader to have a dream; he/she should communicate the dream in a way that will inspire the followers to buy in. Treating the followers as intelligent and creative raises their confidence and motivational level. When followers feel that they have a decision over the organization and that their ideas are considered by the leader, this makes them feel they are the leader.According to Jack Welch, CEO General Electric, there are ten roles for inspirational leaders: 1) provide an inspiring vision and strategic alignment, launch a crusade. 2) Help people connect their personal goals to business goals. 3) Make relentless innovation a religion. 4) Encourage entrepreneurial creativity and experimentation. 5) Involve everyone, empower and trust employees. 6) Coach and train your people to greatness. 7) Build teams and promote teamwork, leverage diversity 8) Motivate, inspire and energize people, recognize achievements. 9) Encourage risk taking. 10) Make business fun.These ten simple roles can assure a leader to be motivational and inspirational (Welch 2005) A great example of inspiration is when Steve Jobs stole the CEO from Pepsi by asking him, Ã¢â¬Å"Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life, or do you want to change the world? Ã¢â¬ Being inspiring means showing followers the big picture and helping them see beyond a narrow focus and understand how their part fits into the big picture (Bennis ; Nanus 2007) When giving example of motivational leaders and companies, Google have to be highlighted. There are many motivational practices being carried in Google that makes it an employer of choice.Google believes that appreciation is the best motivational tool, Google have created a fun and inspiring workplace by providing onsite doctor and dentist, massage and yo ga and professional development. Google offers a variety of benefits for employees including medical insurances, free travel options, companyÃ¢â¬â¢s share and more (Forster 2009). To be a successful leader in a globalized world itÃ¢â¬â¢s not enough to have motivational skills, but also the leaders should differentiate between how people from different generations, gender, cultures react differently towards motivational tactics.For example, what motivates me as a Generation Y might not work with baby-boomers and things that motivate me now cannot be motivational anymore in future! Once the leader understands the motivational differences he/she will obtain different styles to make all the followers motivated by having a variety of motivational tactics to select from. Sometimes motivational techniques could be miss-used by leaders. For example, a leader will promise a subordinate with promotion if he/she performs accordingly. However, the employee will do his/her best and achieve the targeted goal assuming he/she will be promoted.They make fake promises only to enhance the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation and performance level for short-term, however, neglecting t he dissatisfaction that could accrue in long-term by such practices. Integrity and honesty Ã¢â¬Å"Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful. Ã¢â¬ (Samuel Johnson 1709-84) Integrity is one of the most personality traits that followers seek in their leaders. There are three main factors of what constitutes integrity in a leader: trust, honesty, empathy.In the surveys conducted by Kouzes Posner for the Leadership Challenge book, honesty has been ranked higher than any other competencies- gaining a percentage of 89 % in 2007. (Kouzes Posner, 2007). People want to follow an honest leader! Followers will willingly follow a leader who makes them feel trusted and in safe hands. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a human nature, were we tend to believe in the words and vision that come through a trusted person and we walk upon it. The leaders should demonstrate honesty with themselves, followers, customers, stakeholders and partners. Once a leader is perceived as an honest person, it will be reflected on the followersÃ¢â¬â¢ honesty as well (Kouzes Posner, 2007). An honest leader when runs his/her organization ethically; in return the followers carry out practices with honesty and integrity, at the end this means that the customers are being treated honestly. In addition, honest leaders have more power over their followers than a dishonest. For example, if the followers believe and know that their leader has been honest all the way- in good and bad times: Firstly they will be willingly following him/her.Secondly, they will buy in his vision and will work towards achieving it with honesty too. Lastly, they will trust and support his/her decisions and will do their best to achieve the goals. Leaders should show honesty, even in situations if he/she is admitting mistakes as this will increase the leadership influence. True leaders should understand how followers feel about a given situation and should demonstrate empathy by their actions. True leaders consider the entire organization when taking decisions, rather than looking for their own benefits.Empathy and truly understanding others, is extremely an important part of gaining trust. Good example, of an honest leader is Lee Lacocca, he was honest with his employees when Chrysler was near-bankruptcy. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t cheat on his employees by paying himself or selling his shares, rather he announced that he will pay himself a symbolic salary of only $1 for twelve months instead of $ 360 000. This ethical behavior had great influence on his followers and things were changed to better and taking the company to profitability (Iacocca, 1988: 242- as cited in the book by Forster 2009).On the other hand, if the leader is dishonest and yet the subordinates follow him willingly that means even these individuals are themselves dishonest or will lose the self-respect and will be perceived as dishonest by others surrounding them. Dishonest and unethical leaders throughout the history were the reason behind the fails of many organizations. Enron Corporation is one example of how leaders of a multi-billion dollar corporation, by unethical business practices, ruined the lives of thousands. In 2001, Enron as the fifth largest company on the Fortune 500. However, EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s unethical accounting practices have led the company into a bankruptcy (Forster 2009). This bankruptcy has caused many problems among many individuals. Numerous employees lost their jobs and retirement funds, while top executives were selling their stocks, knowing that the company was going to fall, employees and shareholders were the ones who would take the biggest hit. If the officers of Enron had any integrity they wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve been empathetic to the livelihood of others. Instead of lining their own pocket, they wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve done whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right if they had integrity. Future leadership skills and attributes- after ten years New times demand new kinds of leaders. Although 2300 years ago our ancestors have known and practiced the core attributes of effective leaders, as the Greek philosopher Aristotle suggested that prospective leaders- having acquired self-awareness and wisdom- needed to develop additional three competencies: Ethos, Pathos, and logos. These are still relevant as it was, and will continue to be.However, the global world is requiring new leaders with new and unique combination of skills and personal attributes. All of the above mentioned skills (visionary, effective communicator, honest, motivational and inspirational) will remain important for leaders even after ten years from now; however, some of these skills might evolve by the speed of change, new technologies, smaller world, and the impact of advances made by women leaders g lobally and some of them might be seen more important in the future that it is now.Technology is affecting every aspect of our lives, including leadership skills. In a world where information travels faster than ever, leaders should be proactive to technology changes rather than reactive. Rapid changes in the world today combined by overloading information make it difficult for leaders to know everything around them. Also it makes it difficult to communicate all the changes. Technology is making the leaders life easier and difficult at the same time. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easier to be connected to the world by simple clicks. However, the virtual world might affect the way ommunication skills were defined, leaders used to depend on body language, eye contact, movement and in some cases charisma to deliver their messages or convey ideas. With all the new communication devices (electronic emails and video conferencing), future leaders should be trained well in using the technology effectively and yet inspiring their followers. Thus, future leader will need to appreciate and understand the power and purpose of technology. In addition, as everyday a new technology is invented, the future leaders should be a Ã¢â¬Å"techno-leaderÃ¢â¬ in the way they lead and behave.For example, these days we interact with many successful leaders who donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to use the latest technology properly (e. g face book, i-Pod, and communicators); however people manage to follow them. As the younger generation will be representing the majority of the future followers and leaders, developing skills in using advanced technology will be an essential leadership trait to succeed in a globalized organization. Because of technology corporations will become cluster organizations, where some will be working from home. This will require the leader to learn leading from distance!In short, a future leader should be technologist. Globalization is affecting the leadership attributes, leaders will have to become more multicultural in their thinking and leading styles. As companies are becoming more diverse, a real leader will have to cope with this by learning more and more about cultural differences. Indeed, followers might seek to follow leaders with experience in more than on culture. A leader, who learns and understands different cultures, and there is a possibility of evolving a new trait that could so called Ã¢â¬Å"a mixed-cultural leaderÃ¢â¬ .Future good leaders should consider the cultural differences even more than ever before and look at the diversity as an advantage not challenge or obstacle. Interestingly, a common global culture might be invented to serve the global business, where people will be sharing a common culture, as sharing a common language today! Motivational and inspirational will still remain important attribute the followers will be seeking in future leaders. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t know f or defiantly if it will be seen less or more important. But for sure, the future leaders will need to change the motivational tactics they are using today.What inspire followers today, might not work in future. For example, allowing employees to work at home, providing them with free international internet services in their cell phones might be seen more motivational than providing a fun working environment in future. As more successful women acquiring leadership positions globally and having the feminine impact on the workforce, the negative criticism about her as a leader is becoming less. In fact, recently women as leaders have brought up many effective leadership attributes. For example, collaboration with followers is an important leadership skill.Recent research has shown that women are more collaborative in work than men. She works with different individuals in harmony with emphasis to achieve the desired goal collectively. In addition, we all know and realize that women have multi-task brains. We can do and think about different things at the same time. This is a natural gift that we as women have, however, men might need to develop and acquire this skill to be successful leaders, since things are changing very fast and leaders will have to set on different projects and goals to be achieved at the same time!Building strong relationship with followers is another skill that women are keen on. As mentioned earlier in this paper, leaders should build a trusted relationship with followers. Ken Blanchard, in his book Whale Done: The Power of Positive Relationships, encourage leaders to concentrate on good things their followers do, reinforcing good habits and using praise as motivators. This builds trust and strengthen relationships. Women generally have an intuitive understanding of the value of relationship in all aspects of their lives.The ability to value and build trust and relationships is seen as critical trait in leaders for a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to grow and expand. We have noticed how the betrayal of the Enron leaders cause painful results as mentioned earlier. We have also seen a female warrior in Carly Fiorina, Hewlett PackardÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO, maximize internal and external relationships to win the recent battle at Hewlett Packard (Marquardt Berger 2000). Conclusion In conclusion, leadership skills and competencies can be different from industry to industry and from a medium-sized to a multi-billion organization.However, there are some basic leadership traits that all leaders should acquire and develop in order to succeed in the globalized business world. Visionary and forward looking, effective communication, motivational and integrity are the most important qualities that people look for in thei r leaders and will more likely to follow. While the core skills of leadership have remained and will remain the same over time, the leadership of the future will require a different emphasis on particular skills as a result of new technologies, smaller world, and the impact of advances made by women as leaders.By preparing for these changes ahead, the leaders can expect what the leadership will look like in future. word count 3,620Bibliography Bennis, W. and Nanus, B. (2007) Leaders: Strategies for Taking Charge, New York: HarperCollins Publisher. Forster,N. (2009). Maximum Performance: A Practical Guide to Leading and Managing People at Work, Dubai: Maximum Performance. Giuliani, R. (2002). Leadership, New York: Miramax books. James Clausen. Suite101, (2004). Organizational Leadership and Integrity in Business Management. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://human-resources-management. uite101. com/article. cfm/organizational_leadership_and_integrity#ixzz0iGeeJOQ2 Kouzes, J. and Posner, B. (2007), The Leadership Challenge- 4th ed, San Francisco: Josey-Bass. Marquardt, M. and Berger, N. (2000), Global Leaders of the 21st Century, Albany: Sate University of New York Press. Mitchell, J. (20080. Hug Your People, London: Bantam Book. Shead, M. (2007). Five most important leadership traits. Retrieved March, 2010 from http://www. leadership501. com/five-most-important-leadership-traits/27/ Welch, J S. (2005). Winning, HarperCollins. How to cite Attributes and Competencies of the Global Leader, Papers
Leaders which use the autocratic approach do not delegate responsibilities to the team members and prefer to stay in control over the business. (Malcolm Surridge, 2005, p. 181) Alternatively, paternalistic leaders are open to the opinions of their subordinates and allow for dialogue between people on the higher lever of hierarchy and the junior staff. However, the leader will still be the one who makes the main decisions. (Malcolm Surridge, 2005, p. 182) Leaders who use the democratic approach, however, tend to communicate with the employees down the hierarchy and consider their points of view.They delegate responsibilities within the organisation allowing subordinates to actively participate in discussions of decision-making. This is motivational for employees given that they are well-trained and informed about aspects of the organisation in order to carry out their defined job. Despite the fact that leadership is one of the major keys to organisationsÃ¢â¬â¢ success, strong teamwork is considered as well. There are various factors that employees are likely to have in order to create a well-operating team. (Malcolm Surridge, 2005, p. 182)Effective communication is one of the most significant skills a member obtains whilst working with others. Sometimes the targets that a team member sets to himself might overweigh the overall objective of the team which can be counter-productive. This is when active communication is required. Another possible approach is working as one without showing the dominance of a single personality. Being in a team also requires one to develop respect for othersÃ¢â¬â¢ values and opinions. Stella Cottrell (2003, pp. 121-122) Likewise, motivation is the optimal approach to strong teamwork and excellent performance of team members.A notable example of this is of an American psychologist Douglas McGregor who, in the early 1950s, established two theories which he named Theory Y and Theory X, describing the factors that motivate individuals within the organisation. It is believed that subordinates that refer to Theory X try to avoid work and responsibilities. These types of individuals call for supervision and are not the best types for teamwork. However, those which refer to the Theory Y are believed to be ambitious and tend to put effort and time into the production of the business.These types of employees enjoy work and are therefore naturally open to interacting with others which involves, not only sharing their own ideas, but also accepting propositions from other team members. Individuals that refer to the Theory Y generally enjoy taking responsibilities which is more useful while dealing with arisen issues in the team. Ian Marcouse (2005, p. 235) Individuals experience shortcomings in working with others in positions of both team member and leader. There are various factors which cause unsuccessful leaders, failed teamwork, and bad decision making.The challenges are often due to defective leader types, unsuccessful combination of people working together and other external factors. The main challenge in teamwork and leadership is personality. Some individuals have difficult personalities, and occasionally, dysfunctional personal attributes which cause destructive behavior. Such is the case with toxic leaders who misuse their position of power and leave a negative impact on their followers (Kusy, 2009 p. 4). Narcissists, control freaks or those with personality type A, and manipulators are all types of toxic leaders.Working with, or under, these leaders disrupts the harmony within a team, and shifts the membersÃ¢â¬â¢ objectives and values (Kusy, 2009 p. 4). Emotionally unstable team members can also limit group productivity by what is called the bad apple effect, whereby the unstable members spread their negative energies to the rest of the team. Furthermore, teams made up of one personality type present challenges. An anxious extrovert team, for instance, can show poor performance as all the members can be easily distracted (Management Teams, Belbin, 2010 p. 29).The opposite composition of such a team can also lead to negative results, as with stable introvert teams, who are not perceptible to new important factors which could influence changes to their given project. Similarly, apollo teams, or teams constructed of members with high mental ability, struggle with decision-making and performing activities due to competition, focus on debate and demeaning othersÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas in the face of their own (Management Teams, Belbin, 2010 p. 29). Therefore, the imbalance of power within team members can therefore be detrimental.This is notable when groups of mixed genders work together, as women are known to receive less accreditation for their work and ideas cross-culturally (Management Teams, Belbin, 2010 pp. 15-19). A multicultural team can also yield negative results if they suffer from miscommunication or a lack of understanding of the othersÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective and background (Gordon, 2002 p. 91). This is a result of a lack of self-awareness on each team memberÃ¢â¬â¢s part. Lacking that awareness can also cause groupthink. This theory by Janis Irving states that teams are highly susceptible to mindless conformity when making decisions (Barash, 1999 p. 1). He states that critical thinking is waned, especially in cases where the members inadvertently comply with their leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ approach without a question. Decision-making within a team not only takes longer, but also results in more extreme decisions as team members feel they are not individually accountable for the consequences (Gordon, 2002 p. 189). Moreover, individual knowledge is ignored to reach a unanimous decision. A factor which can influence groupthink and affect levels of productivity is the size of the team.Belbin has shown that the bigger the team, the more likely they are to be victims of groupthink (Management Teams, Belbin, 2010 p. 110). By the same token, although smaller teams are favourable, a three-man team can be counter-productive if a member is absent. These teams are especially vulnerable as they are dependent on how the personalities in the teams get on (Management Teams, Belbin, 2010 p. 116). Another factor to consider is that some people are not productive in teams as they think they work better on their own (Marcouse, 2005 p. 262).
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Leadership Behaviors and Subordinate Resilience. Answer: Introduction The success of a business organization is dependent upon the leadership and the organization culture. In the recent years, the Commonwealth Bank of Australia has suffered from several cases of corporate frauds and money-laundering scandals. These cases show that there is some serious issue in corporate culture and the leadership style of the organization. Since 2011, the Managing Director and the CEO of Commonwealth Bank of Australia is Ian Narev. It is the largest company of Australia by market capitalization. Ian joined the company as the Group Head of Business Strategy. Since 2009, Ian was given diversified job roles of Group Executive, Business and Private Banking, SME banking and CommSec retail brokerage business. He was a tenured and talented candidate focused on developing the organization culture in several different ways. He introduced new technologies to enhance the customer engagement with the organization, enhancing the employee productivity, adapting new business regulations, and developing a customer-centric and value-driven culture (Bolman Deal, 2017). Ian is well-educated and director of Business Council of Australia and International Monetary Conference. As the CEO of CBA, Ian promotes workplace diversity and positive organization culture at the workplace. He has a broad view and believes that diversity can increase the productivity at the workplace. He also promotes leadership and inclusion of disabled people and older people at the workplace. His initiatives have yielded positive results and resulted in high diversity in terms of religion, sexual orientation, and ethnic background (Willaims, 2015). However, in the recent years, the organization has been plagued by different corporate scandals in the insurance industry, financial planning and the money laundering cases. It can be stated that these scandals are the results weaknesses in the leadership style and the corporate strategy of the organization (Antonakis Day, 2017). With the analysis of these scandals and the management intention of Ian Narev, it can be stated that the intention of the management is good; however, there are certain loopholes, which has given the middle management autonomy. They have taken certain decisions, which have resulted in negative outcomes for the society as well as for the organization. With this analysis, it can be discussed that the leadership strategy of Ian Narev is Laissez-faire leadership style (Fairhurst Connaughton, 2014). It is a delegate leadership, in which the leaders allow the group members to take certain decisions. However, this leadership style results in lowest productivity among the group members. The most prominent characteristics of Laissez-faire leadership style are that the employees receive very little guidance from the leaders. It also provides significant freedom to the followers so that they can take easy decisions. In this leadership style, the power is handed over to the followers; however, the leader is responsible for all the decisions (Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt Van Engen, 2003). The conventional Laissez-faire leadership style is the leadership approach, in which the leaders adopt a hands-off approach. These business leaders remain open to the different group members for consultation and feedback. The leaders provide direction to the team members; however, the employees are allowed to complete their job with little oversight. The approach to leadership is effective, if the employees are responsible, expert and trustworthy. The leaders should feel confident that the employees of the organization have the necessary skills, knowledge and capable of managing the projects without any supervision (Skogstad, Einarsen, Torsheim, Aasland Hetland, 2007). However, there are certain pitfalls of this type of leadership style. The leadership style is not ideal, if the people lack the experience or the knowledge to make certain decisions. The leadership style is associated with poor job performance, leader effectiveness and lack of group satisfaction (Xirasagar, 2008). There are several negative sides of Laisez-faire style, which are lack of awareness, involvement with the group, low accountability and passive behavior towards the organization (Hinkin Schriesheim, 2008). The money-laundering scandal was a result of the negligence from the management of the organization. The ASIC is investigating CBA for regulatory uncompliant behavior. It is evaluating if the organization has complied by the regular disclosure laws. The organization should also immediately alert the investors of any suspicious behavior. The ASIC committee suspected that the bank might have played some foul play and has not complied with the licensing obligations. The public and the media criticized the board of the bank regarding the money laundering allegations; however, Norak rejected the criticism. He stated that the organization is very large in size and therefore, they have developed several autonomous teams, which has to be managed by the investors and the regulators (Ryan, 2017). There were other issues as well. The public relations of the organization were not appropriate, which created several issues in the mishandling of trust and the public confidence (Butler and Johnston, 2014). There has been a lack of financial planning and foresight in the introduction of the financial policies in the organization. The financial planning scandal has led to several questions regarding the leadership style of Ian Narev and whether he will be capable of handling the financial crisis. The current decisions of the CEO states that he has very static style to handle the financial planning crisis. As a result, the customers, companies and the captains of the organization have also accused the company of hubris (Jones Rudd, 2008). The lack of foresight can also be perceived by the personal career growth of CEO of the organization. The career growth of Ian shows that there is lack of career planning. The current annual package of Narev is the lowest, which shows that he has not negotiated properly with the Board of Directors. Further, it can be critiqued that Ian follows transactional leadership style. This style demonstrates a lack of vision, as the leader is focused on running the day to day operations of the organization rather than leading the organization for the future growth. The business leaders make the followers comply by the rules and regulations with the help of rewards and punishment. These leaders set goals and explicit agreements with the followers of the organization. They also increase the efficiency and establishing routines in the organization (Amanchukwu, Stanley Ololube, 2015). These leaders are focused on establishing rules and making the followers to work accordingly. Diversity and inclusion are important criteria for the transactional leaders. They consciously seek diverse talent to build a competent workforce. They emphasize building and working with heterogeneous teams by understanding the significance of diversity and inclusion in the business enterprise. Ian Norak also emphasizes the importance of diversity in the organization (Harland, Harrison, Jones Reiter-Palmon, 2005). The recruitment and the talent management department of the organization emphasize the inclusion criteria and try to select the employees from different walks of life. Along with it, Ian Norav has also been a good leader and mentor for the employees. The mentoring relationship is crucial for the corporate to develop the human resources. It is the process, which can be used to emphasize the growth and talent of the employees. Norav has introduced a unique organization culture, in which the employees are given freedom and flexibility. They are also provided opportunity to develop their talent within the organization. There are several training and development programs within the organization, which are dedicated towards the employee growth (Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt Van Engen, 2003). Other than that, there are several leadership development programs, which are dedicated towards to develop the future leaders of the organization. The organization culture also promotes diversity and empowerment of the employees. The employees are given autonomy so that they can control their growth. Other than that, the organization culture of the bank is positive and flexible. The employees have a flexible work schedule. However, since the privacy and security is the major concern for the banks, proper training is provided (Chaudhry Javed, 2012). The bank has fixed timings and the employees should follow them. Conclusion It can be concluded that the leadership style of Isan Norak is that of Laissez-faire style. . It also provides significant freedom to the followers so that they can take easy decisions. In this leadership style, the power is handed over to the followers; however, the leader is responsible for all the decisions. The employees were capable of conducting fraud, due to the freedom provided to them. There has been a lack of financial planning and foresight in the introduction of the financial policies in the organization. It also shows the issues in the leadership style of the CEO. Since 2011, he has been the Managing Director and the CEO of Commonwealth Bank of Australia. It is the largest company of Australia by market capitalization; however, his compensation has been low. 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